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Terminology


Metal Terminology
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FACE CENTERED

(Concerning cubic space lattices) - Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the close-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres.


FATIGUE

The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress. Fatigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute cracks and grow under the action of fluctuating stress.


FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL

Has a body centered cubic (BCC) structure. These alloys are the chromium stainless steels containing low carbon levels. They are hardenable primarily by cold working, although some will harden slightly by heat treating. Ferritic stainless steels work harden much slower than austentitic stainless steels.


FERROALLOY

An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel.


FERRO-MANGANESE

An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or cast-iron.


FERROUS

Related to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum.) Ferrous alloys are, therefore, iron base alloys.


FIBER OR FIBRE

Direction in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling, with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow.


FIBER STRESS

Unit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load; given as load per unit area.


FILED EDGES

Finished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed.


FINISHED STEEL

Steel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment. Blooms, billets, slabs, sheet bars and wire rods are termed “semi-finished”.


FINISHES

The surface appearance of the various metals after final treatment such as rolling, etc. Over the years the following finishes have become recognized as standard in their respective fields.

ALUMINUM SHEET

(A) Commercially Bright.

(B) Bright one side.

(A) Bright both sides

(D) Embossed Sheets (Produced by using embossed rolls.)

BLACK PLATE

(A) Dull finish without luster produced by use of roughened rolls.

(B) Bright finish - a luster finish produced by use of rolls having a moderately smooth surface.

COLD ROLLED STEEL SHEETS

(A) Commercial Finish. A dull satin surface texture produced by roughened rolls.

(B) Commercial Bright Finish. Bright in appearance with a texture between luster and a very fine matte finish.

(C) Luster Finish. Produced by use of ground and polished rolls. (Note: This is not a number 3 finish.)

COLD ROLLED STRIP STEELS

No. 1 Finish - A dull finish produced without luster by rolling on roughened rolls.

No. 2 Finish - A regular bright finish produced by rolling on moderately bright rolls.

No. 3 Finish - Best Bright Finish. A lustrous or high gloss finish produced by rolling on highly polished rolls. Also referred to as “Mirror Finish”.

COPPER BASE ALLOYS

Acid Dipped - Dry rolled finished. Produced by dry cold rolling bi-chromate dipped alloy with polished rolls, resulting in a burnished appearance and retaining the color obtained by dipping (True Metal Color).

Bright Dipped Finish - Finish resulting from an acid dip.

Buffed or Polished Surface - A finish obtained by buffing, resulting in a high gloss or polished finish.

Cold Rolled Finish - A relatively smooth finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled strip with a lubricant.

Dry Rolled Finish - A burnished finish resulting from dry cold rolling by use of polished rolls without any metal lubricant.

Hot Rolled Finish - A dark relatively rough oxidized finish resulting from rolling the metal while hot. May subsequently be pickled or bright dipped but the rough surface remains.

Stretched Brushed Finish (Satin Finish) Obtained by mechanically brushing with wire brushes or by buffing.

FLAT WIRE

No. 2 Finish - A regular bright finish.

No. 3 Finish - Best Bright High Gloss finish produced by use of polished rolls. Or by special buffing - this is a negotiated finish.

STAINLESS COLD ROLLED SHEET and STRIP Nos. 1, 2B & 2D.

No. 1 Finish - C. R. Annealed and pickled appearance varies from dull gray matte finish to a fairly reflective surface.

No. 2B Finish - Same as No.1 Finish followed by a final light cold rolled pass generally on highly polished rolls.

No. 2D Finish - A dull cold rolled finish produced by cold rolling on dull rolls.

STAINLESS C.R. SHEET - Polished Finishes

No. 3 Finish - This is an intermediate polished finish.

No. 4 Finish - Ground and Polished finish.

No. 6 Finish - Ground, Polished and Tampico Brushed.

No. 7 Finish - Ground and High Luster Polished.

No. 8 Finish - Ground and Polished to Mirror Finish.

TEMPERED and UNTEMPERED COLD ROLLED CARBON SPRING

STEEL STRIP

Classified by description as follows:

(A) Black Oil Tempered.

(B) Scaleless Tempered.

(A) Bright Tempered.

(D) Tempered and Polished.

(E) Tempered, Polished and Colored (Blue or Straw).

TIN PLATE

(A) Bright Hot Dipped Finish.

(B) Electro Matte Dull Finish.

(C) Electro Bright Reflow Finish - produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition.


FINISHING TEMPERATURE

Temperature of final hot-working of a metal.


FLAME ANNEALING

A process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a high temperature flame.


FLAME HARDENING

A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a high-temperature flame, and then cooling as required.


FLAPPER VALVE STEEL

An extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage, polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.15% carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage.


FLATTENING

(See Roller and Stretcher Leveling)


FLAT LATCH NEEDLE STEEL

Supplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .85. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods.


FLAT WIRE

A flat Cold Rolled, prepared edge section up to ¼” wide, rectangular in shape. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired width followed by edge dressing.


FLOWLINES

Always visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching, indicating the direction of work or rolling.


FLOW STRESS

The shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals.


FLUTING

Kinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with relation to thickness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. Not to be confused with the specific product, Fluted Tubes.


FOIL

Metal in any width but no more than about 0.005” thick.


FOLDS

Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces.


FRACTURE

Surface appearance of metals when broken.


FRACTURE TEST

Nicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable macroscopic study of the fracture.


FRICTION GOUGES OR SCRATCHES

A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. (See Galling)


FULL ANNEALING

Used principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to about 100°F. above the critical temperature range, followed by “soaking” at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature.


FULL FINISH PLATE

Steel sheet or strip reduced either hot or cold, cleaned, annealed, and then cold-rolled to a bright finish.


FULL HARD TEMPER

(A) No. 1 Temper. In low carbon sheet or strip steel, stiff and springy, not suitable for bending in any direction. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip, tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185,000 TS, 140,000 YS Min. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper.


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MTI ENGINEERING CORPORATION
Precision Sheet Metal Fabrication
15678 Graham St. Huntington Beach, CA 92649
Telephone: (714) 891-4619
Marc Grismer Ext 105
Fax: (714) 891-7570
Web Site: http://www.mtiengineering.com
E-Mail: sheetmetal@mtiengineering.com


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Last modified on March 15, 2007

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